Photograph looking up Dore Street (likely between Brannan and Bryant streets) in San Francisco, showing liquefaction-related damage from the 1906 earthquake. The undulations in the road show the effects of settlement and lateral spreading. Damage to the wood-frame houses likely resulted from a combination of lateral spreading and loss of soil strength (loss of bearing capacity) from liquefaction. This area was once marshland with a tributary to Mission Creek bisecting the marsh and flowing southeast toward Mission creek. The marsh and creek was filled in the middle to late 1800s, likely with dune sand (O'Rourke and others, 1992). Such areas are subject to amplified shaking, because of the underlying soft soils, and liquefaction of the poorly engineered, sandy artificial fill. (Photograph courtesy of the Bancroft Library)

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