Liquefaction of sediment at depth caused lateral spreading near the Pajaro River in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The lateral spread moved from right to left, towards the Pajaro River. The vertical deformation shown in the photograph is a common feature of lateral spreads. Most lateral spread damage to roads and pipelines occurs at the margins of the mass that spreads, such as at the location of the large cracks shown here. (Photograph by S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey, in U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 90-547, number XIV-4.)

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