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Southern California Areal Mapping Project

 

SCAMP GIS Activities

Geologic Attributes for Digital Geologic Maps

SCAMP is actively developing descriptive and interpretive attributes for geologic lines, points, and polygons that occur in digital geologic-map data bases produced by the project. Preliminary versions of these attributes have been released (Matti and others, 1997a, b, c), and can be downloaded from this site.


Ultimately, the digital geologic attributes we are developing will fully characterize the physical properties, origin, and history of geologic materials and geologic structures in southern California. The attribute set will include such features as:

 

  • lithology
  • petrology
  • mineralogy
  • geologic structures
  • geologic age
  • surficial geomorphology and pedology
  • fault geometry and slip style
  • fault-movement history (recurrence, historic rupture)
  • igneous history
  • depositional history
  • deformational history
  • metamorphic history
  • paleontologic resources
  • engineering properties
  • geophysical properties
  • geochronologic resources

We also are developing data-base attributes that convey information about the origin, quality, and digital capture of the geologic features, including such parameters as:

 

  • locational accuracy for geologic lines and points
  • origination source for geologic line, point, and polygon information
  • scientific veracity (the interpretive confidence assigned to geologic features by the originator of the map data)
  • origination, methods, and specifications of digital data capture.

The three reports released by Matti and others (1997a,b,c) are a first step in developing attribute standards for SCAMP. Feedback we have received concerning these reports has been encouraging. However, feedback also has shown us that there are many different philosophies and methodologies for attributing geologic information in southern California, and that these differences should be opened up for discussion within an audience wider than the SCAMP project. Accordingly, we are using this web site as a way to facilitate discussion and feedback among southern California geologic-map makers and geologic-map users on the subject of digital geologic-map attributes.

We currently are expanding, revising, and refining the geologic attributes released in Matti and others (1997a,b,c). To facilitate this process and to encourage various map users and map makers to participate in building an attribute collection for southern California, we have placed on this web site portable-document files (PDF) of working lists of these attributes. We invite you to download the files, to examine them, and to provide us with your feedback.

NOTE: The PDF files require a portable document file reader to examine and read. Link to Adobe Acrobat Reader to download a free version of a pdf reader. Depending on your browser's setup, you may read any of the files now or save them to your disk.

The following U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports can be downloaded from this site:

Provisional scheme for geologic-line attributes (USGS Open-File Report 97-861) (pdf file, 439KB)

ARC/INFO geologic-line library that accompanies USGS Open-File Report 97-861) (ARC/INFO coverage "geoSCAMP2.lin") (83 KB)

Provisional scheme for geologic-point attributes (USGS Open-File Report 97-859) (pdf file, 198KB)

ARC/INFO geologic-point library that accompanies USGS Open-File Report 97-859) (ARC/INFO coverage "geoSCAMP2.mrk") (403 KB)

Provisional scheme for geologic-polygon attributes (USGS Open-File Report 97-860) (pdf file, 792KB)

The following working-draft documents can be downloaded from this site (NOTE: These files are NOT official USGS documents. They simply are working drafts placed at this site to inform map makers and map users about possible approaches to geologic-map attribution for southern California that SCAMP is considering):

Text lists of geologic attributes and their codes:

 

SCAMP geologic-line attributes, version 2.0 (pdf file with text list of geologic-line attributes, 86KB)

SCAMP geologic-point attributes, version 2.0 (pdf file with text list of geologic-point attributes, 80KB)

SCAMP geologic-polygon attributes, version 2.0 (pdf file with text list of geologic-polygon attributes, 1,341KB)

Graphical trees of geologic attributes and their codes:

SCAMP geologic-line attributes, version 2.0 (pdf file of graphical attribute trees, 157KB)

SCAMP geologic-point attributes, version 2.0 (pdf file of graphical attribute trees, 84KB)

SCAMP geologic-polygon attributes, version 2.0 (pdf file of graphical attribute trees, 464KB)

Email your comments, feedback, suggestions, and questions about geologic-attribute issues to the following:

 


Data-base Model Developments

SCAMP is in the process of developing a digital geologic-map data model that supports the scientific goals and user requirements of the project.

Early SCAMP Data-model Efforts

Matti and others (1997a,b,c) proposed an early relational data-model structure that incorporated two features:

Root-suffix attribute coding

In this early model, geologic attributes are represented in the data base by a root-suffix abbreviation method whereby each attribute value is an alpha-numeric abbreviation for a geologic feature or family of features. For example, .SDRFDM. is the root-suffix abbreviation for "mylonitic fault rock". The abbreviation is built from the root ".SDR" (strain-dominated rock) and three suffixes: "F" (fault rock), "D" (ductile), and "M" (mylonitic). The single root-suffix abbreviation .SDRFDM. thus allows attribution or selection of a host of different geologic attributes, including:

 

  • the family of strain-dominated rocks (.SDR root) without distinction among the several varieties that include fault rocks (.SDRF.), high-strain-rocks (.SDRH.), and crushed or sheared rock (.SDRC.);
  • all fault rocks (.SDRF root) including both ductile (.SDRFD.) and brittle (.SDRFB.) fault rock, but not other varieties of strain-dominated rock such as crushed or sheared rock (.SDRC.) or high-strain rock (.SDRH.);
  • all ductile fault rocks (.SDRFD root) without distinction among protomylonite (.SDRFDP.), mylonite (.SDRFDM.), and ultramylonite (.SDRFDU.);
  • mylonitic fault rock (.SDRFDM.) but not protomylonite (.SDRFDP.) or ultramylonite (.SDRFDU.).

 

Multi-value data-base fields

In the early SCAMP data model, the root-suffix attribute codes were assembled into "code sentences" or multi-value code strings that populated data fields in appropriate data tables (Matti and others, 1997a, b, c). An example might be:

MZO.BED.SDRFDM.TOND.TIGPD.

which would be a code sentence for a geologic-map unit having the attributes of:

"Mesozoic.bedrock.strain-dominated rock.fault rock.ductile.mylonite.deformed tonalite.igneous texture (deformed).porphyroclastic."

Although this phrasing technique mimics the way geologists describe geologic materials and geologic structures, from a data-base management point of view the multi-value fields require one or more parsing procedures in order to perform the inter-field relates necessary to associate attribute codes with their definitions.

Interested readers can download a geologic map of the Fawnskin 7.5' quadrangle in the San Bernardino Mountains (Miller and others, 1998) to see an example of the version 1.0 SCAMP data-base model.

Recent SCAMP Data-model Activities

Recently, Kennedy and Matti (1999, USGS Open-File Report 99-145) proposed a relational data-base model for the organization, storage, and retrieval of geologic-map data from SCAMP map files. Although complex to use without benefit of software tools, the data-model structure addresses the complete range of geologic and metadata issues of concern to SCAMP field geologists and the southern California map-user community.

Of special interest, the model uses a compound primary relate key that allows for the unique attribution of (1) individual line segments, points, and polygons or (2) groups of line segments, points, and polygons-in addition to the default attributes of the parent line, point, or polygon class. This feature accommodates the geographic variability that geologic-line, point, and polygon features display in nature.

The data-base document can be downloaded from the following sites:

 

  • SCAMP geologic-map data model, version 2.0 (PDF file of complete text and graphics, 1,263KB)
  • SCAMP geologic-map data model, version 2.0 (PDF file of manuscript text, without graphics, 215KB)
  • SCAMP geologic-map data model, version 2.0 (PDF file of figure 1 only, 548KB)
  • SCAMP geologic-map data model, version 2.0 (PDF file of figure 2 only, 481KB)

Integration with other USGS data-model efforts

SCAMP's data-base structure and digital attributes anticipate nationwide spatial-data standards currently being developed under auspices of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. These national standards will form the foundation of the National Geologic-Map Data Base (NGMDB), currently being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the State geological surveys (Soller and Berg, 1998; Soller and Berg, 2001). The NGMDB in turn will be supported by a standardized geologic-map data model being developed by a consortium of interests, including the USGS, Geological Survey of Canada, and the Association of American State Geologists. A prototype data model has been developed by Johnson and others, 1999 (Data model version 4.3). Included eventually in this model will be nationwide spatial-data standards for polygons, lines, and points; such standards currently are being developed by the Science Language Technical Team of the North American Data Model Steering Committee. Visit the NADM Science Language website for discussions of issues related to scientific terms in geologic-map databases.

The SCAMP data model is intended to be fully compatible with the national model via translator utilities. Our preliminary review and evaluation of the national model (v. 4.3) found no major barriers to such a translation. Although SCAMP geologic-map data bases will support more detailed geologic information than the National Geologic-Map Data Base, these data can be generalized into the national catalogue as necessary.

SCAMP GIS Products

Johnson, B.R., Brodaric, Boyan, Raines, G.L., Hastings, J. T., and Wahl, Ron 1999, Digital geologic map data model, Version 4.3, 69 p., available at http://geology.usgs.gov/dm/model/Model43a.pdf

Kennedy, S.A., and Matti, J.C., 1999, Data-base model specifications for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project SCAMP), version 2.0a: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-145, 45 p.

Matti, J.C., Miller, F.K., Powell, R.E., Kennedy, S.A., and Cossette, P.M., 1997, Geologic-polygon attributes for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-860, 180 p.

Matti, J.C., Miller, F.K., Powell, R.E., Kennedy, S.A., Bunyapanasarn, T.P., Koukladas, Catherine, Hauser, R.M., and Cossette, P.M., 1997, Geologic-point attributes for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-859, 51 p.

Matti, J.C., Powell, R.E., Miller, F.K., Kennedy, S.A., Ruppert, K.R., Morton, G.L., and Cossette, P.M., 1997, Geologic-line attributes for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-861, 103 p.

Miller, F.K., Matti, J.C., Brown, H.J., and Powell, R.E., 1998, Digital geologic map of the Fawnskin 7.5' quadrangle, California, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-579, scale 1:24,000 Soller, David R., and Berg, Thomas, M., 1997, The National Geologic Map Database--A progress report: Geotimes, v.42, no.12, p. 29-31.

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