A mineral-filled fracture or fault in a rock.
Tabular rock or mineral filling of a generally small crack such as a quartz vein. A product of chemical precipitation from a watery solution, in contrast to a dike crystallized from magma, although gradations exist.
A thin, widespread layer of sediment covering an older surface.
A small bubble formed in volcanic rock during solidification.
A volcanic rock with larger crystals (phenocrysts) embedded in a glassy groundmass.
Igneous rock that cools and solidifies at or very near the Earth's surface. Volcanoes produce volcanic rock.
Arcuate chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate. The arc forms where the downgoing descending plate becomes hot enough to release water and gases that rise into the overlying mantle and cause it to melt. Arc rocks are mostly volcanic rocks from the volcanoes and sedimentary rocks made up of eroded debris from the volcanoes. Melted rock in the deeper plumbing of the arc which may crystallizes at depth to become an arc root plutons.