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Assumptions Made in the Compilation of the Models
These paper models represent simple faults and illustrate some of the
landforms associated with faulting of the Earth's crust. For scale,
the models assume total displacement somewhere in the neighborhood of 40
feet or 12 meters. To make the models more realistic, some of the fault
scarps are cut by gullies and are eroded in ways indicative of an arid landscape.
All of the paper models show displacement on the fault by the use of arrows
and by the offset of a marker bed or a stream.
The normal and reverse fault models represent recent
fault movement with no erosion. The arrows indicate the direction of
relative movement, and the marker bed gives a clue as to the amount
of displacement of the blocks.
The right- and left-lateral strike-slip fault models,
illustrate the occurrence of horizontal fault movement. The arrows indicate
the direction of relative movement. Note the offset in the stream channels.
On the oblique-slip fault, there has been horizontal
and vertical slip on the fault line. The arrows indicate the direction
of relative slip, and the marker bed gives a clue as to the amount of
displacement of the blocks. The fault scarp on the upthrown block has
been eroded and a stream has eroded a small canyon into this block.
Note the right-lateral offset of the stream channel.
The graben model portrays three fault blocks in which
the middle block has fallen relative to the two blocks on either side.
The movement on the two near-parallel faults is vertical, as indicated
by the arrows. and displacement is implied by the marker bed. On one
of the upthrown blocks, a stream has eroded a gully and deposited an
Three fault blocks make up the horst model with the
middle block higher than the blocks on either side. The relative movement
is indicated by the arrows, and the marker bed expresses the displacement
of the faults. On the upthrown block (horst) there is an intermittent
stream with associated gully and alluvial fan.
General Directions for Constructing the Models
To cut out the models, scissors may be used, but a small knife,
such as an X-ACTO knife with a number 11 blade may be the best. For constructing
the models, a water-soluble glue, preferably a stick glue, works well.
Read the special instructions and study the cutting and folding steps.
Look at the folding diagrams to see how the patterns fit together to make
the model landforms. Make a photocopy of the pattern, carefully cut out
the pattern, and fold all corners and tabs. Fold the pattern into the
model before applying glue, then glue the tabs, which are indicated with
a dot pattern.
By using a computer and a graphics software program (not included)
geologic patterns and symbols can be added to the models before construction
to represent, rock types, surface material, or the influence of man. Color
can be added to the models before or after construction. Have fun customizing
your three-dimensional paper fault models.