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Western Earth Surface Processes Team

Geology of the San Bernardino Mountains

Geologic Framework of the San Bernardino National Forest

Location of the San Bernardino National Forest study area   Location of the San Bernardino National Forest study area. The U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting geologic mapping in the San Bernardino National Forest (San Bernardino, San Gabriel, and San Jacinto Mountains), in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, to determine the structural setting and geologic evolution of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in the San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and eastern San Gabriel Mountains. These rocks are being mined by a number of companies both for lime-specialty products and for cement.

Selected Bibliographic References, San Bernardino National Forest

Geologic Hazards Studies

Morton, D.M. and Hauser, R.M.. 2001, A Debris Avalanche at Forest Falls, San Bernardino County, California, July 11,1999. http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of01-146.

Baldwin, J.E., 1987, The Martinez Mountain rock avalanche, in Guptil, P.D., Gath, E.M., and Ruff, R.W., eds., Geology of the Imperial Valley, California: Santa Ana, California, South Coast Geological Society Annual Field Trip Guidebook, v. 14, p. 37-48.

Bock, C.G., 1977, The Martinez Mountain rock avalanche, in Coates, D.R., ed., Landslides: Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology, v. 3, p. 155-168.

Morton, D.M., and Campbell, R.H., 1974, Spring mudflows at Wrightwood, southern California: Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, v. 7, p.377-384.

Morton, D.M., and Kennedy, M.P., 1979, Part 1: Wright Mountain mudflows--1967 landsliding, in Landsliding and mudflows at Wrightwood, San Bernardino County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 136, p.1-6.

Morton, D.M., and Sadler, P.M., 1989, The failings of the Pelona Schist: landslides and sackungen in the Lone Pine Canyon and Wrightwood areas, eastern San Gabriel Mountains, southern California, in Sadler, P.M., and Morton, D.M., eds., Landslides in a semi-arid environment: Redlands, California, Publications of the Inland Geological Society, v. 2, p. 301-322.

Morton, D.M., and Sadler, P.M., 1989, Landslides flanking the northeastern Peninsular Ranges and in the San Gorgonio Pass area of southern California in Sadler, P.M., and Morton, D.M., eds., Landslides in a semi-arid environment: Redlands, California, Publications of the Inland Geological Society, v. 2, p. 338-355.

Morton, D.M., Campbell, R.H., Barrows, A.G., Jr., Kahle, J.E., and Yerkes, R.F., 1979, Part 2: Wright Mountain mudflows--Spring 1969, in Landsliding and mudflows at Wrightwood, San Bernardino County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 136, p.7-21.

Morton, D.M., Sadler, P.M., and Minnich, R.A., 1989, Large rock-avalanche deposits: examples from the central and eastern San Gabriel Mountains of southern California, in Sadler, P.M., and Morton, D.M., eds., Landslides in a semi-arid environment: Redlands, California, Publications of the Inland Geological Society, v. 2, p. 323-337.

Sadler, P.M., and Morton, D.M., 1989, Landslides of the uppermost Santa Ana River basin and the adjacent San Bernardino Mountains of southern California, in Sadler, P.M., and Morton, D.M., eds., Landslides in a semi-arid environment: Redlands, California, Publications of the Inland Geologic Society Publication, v. 2, p. 356-386.

Tan, S.S., 1989, Landslide hazards in the Lake Arrowhead and Big Bear Lake region, San Bernardino County, California: Landslide Hazards Identification Map No. 15: California Division of Mines and Geology Open File Report 89-07.

Tan, S.S., 1990, Landslide hazards in the Yucaipa and Forest Falls [7.5'] quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California: Landslide Hazards Identification Map No. 18: California Division of Mines and Geology Open File Report OFR 90-05, scale 1:24,000.

Tan, S.S., and Giffen, D.G., 1995, Rockfall and stream-related debris-flow hazards of the Forest Falls area, San Bernardino County, California: Landslide Hazards Identification Map No. 43: California Division of Mines and Geology Open File Report OFR 95-43, scale 1:48,000.


Mineral-Resource Studies

Brown, A.R., 1980, Limestone deposits of the Desert Divide, San Jacinto Mountains, in Fife, D.L., and Brown, A.R, eds., Geology and mineral wealth of the California Desert: Santa Ana, California, South Coast Geological Society, p. 284-293.

Brown, H.J., 1987, Geologic setting and operations overview, Lucerne Valley limestone mining district, Lucerne Valley, California, in Pierce, W., ed., 21st Annual Industrial Mineral Conference Proceedings: Arizona Bureau of Mines Special Report 4, p. 44-54.

Calzia, J.P., Matti, J.C., and Gantenbein, Michael, 1995, Geology, geochemistry, and resource potential of carbonate rocks in the San Bernardino National Forest, California: U. S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-39, 26 p., scale 1:100,000.

Cox, B.F., Matti, J.C., Oliver, H.W., and Zilka, N.T., 1983, Mineral resource potential map of the San Gorgonio Wilderness, San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1161-C, scale 1:62,500.

Joseph, S.E., 1985, Mineral land classification of the Pluess-Staufer, Incorporated, White Knob limestone deposit, Lucerne Valley, San Bernardino County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Open File Report OFR 85-13.

Matti, J.C., Cox, B.F., Obi, C.M., Powell, R.E., Hinkle, M.E., Griscom, Andrew, and McHugh, E.L., 1982, Mineral resource potential map of the Whitewater Wilderness Study Area, Riverside and San Bernardino Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1478, scale 1:24,000.

Matti, J.C., Cox, B.F., Rodriguez, E.A., Obi, C.M., Powell, R.E., Hinkle, M.E., Griscom, Andrew, Sabine, Charles, and Cwick, G.J., 1982, Mineral resource potential map of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-217), San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1493-A, scale 1:48,000.

Matti, J.C., Cox, B.F., and Iverson, S.R., 1983, Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Area, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1563-A, scale 1:62,500.

Matti, J.C., Cox, B.F., Powell, R.E., Oliver, H.W., and Kuizon, Lucia, 1983, Mineral resource potential map of the Cactus Spring Roadless Area, Riverside County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1650-A, scale 1:24,000.

Miller R.V., 1989, Mineral land classification of the Smart Ranch limestone property, Big Bear City and Rattlesnake Canyon quadrangles, San Bernardino County, California-for high-grade and cement-grade limestone: California Division of Mines and Geology Open File Report 89-12, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M., Rodriguez, E.A., Obi, C.M., Simpson, R.W., Jr., and Peters, T.J., 1983, Mineral resource potential map of the Cucamonga Roadless Areas, San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1646-A, scale 1:31,680.

Powell, R.E., Matti, J.C., Cox, B.F., Oliver, H.W., Wagini, Alexander, and Campbell, H.W., 1983, Mineral resource potential of the Sugarloaf roadless area, San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1606-A, scale 1:24,000.

Richmond, J.F., 1960, Geology of the San Bernardino Mountains north of Big Bear Lake, California, with a tabulated list of mines and mineral deposits by C.H. Gray, Jr.: California Division of Mines Special Report 65, 68 p.

Shumway, D. and Silva, M. 1994, Mineral land classification of a part of southwestern San Bernardino County, the San Bernardino Valley area, part V: California Division of Mines and Geology Open File Report 94-08, scale 1:48,000.

Taylor, G.C., 1994, Mineral land classification of a part of southwestern San Bernardino County: the Big Bear Lake-Lucerne Valley area, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Open File Report 94-06, scale 1:62,500.


Water Resource Studies

Bloyd, R.M., Jr., 1971, Underground storage of imported water in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California: Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1999D.

Burnham, W.L., and Dutcher, L.C., 1960, Geology and ground-water hydrology of the Redlands-Beaumont area, California, with special reference to ground-water outflow: United States Department of the Interior Geological Survey-Ground Water Branch, Open-File Report, 352 p.

French, J.J., 1974, compiler, Maps of San Gorgonio Pass-upper Coachella Valley area, California, showing water-level contours, 1936 and 1966-67 with a tabulation of data on water wells: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report, scale 1:62,500, 3 sheets.


Earthquake-history, Fault-recurrence, Slip-Rate, Paleoseismology, and Geodetic-strain Investigations

General Seismicity and Strain Studies

Frankel, Arthur, 1993, Three-dimensional simulations of ground motions in the San Bernardino Valley, California, for hypothetical earthquakes on the San Andreas fault: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 83, p. 1020-1041.

Frankel, Arthur, 1994, Dense array recordings in the San Bernardino Valley of Landers-Big Bear aftershocks-Basin surface waves, Moho reflections, and three-dimensional simulations: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 84, p. 613-624.

Hadley, David, and Kanamori, Hiroo, 1977, Seismic structure of the Transverse Ranges, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 88, p. 1469-1478.

Humphreys, E.D., and Hager, B.H., 1990, A kinematic model for the late Cenozoic development of southern California crust and upper mantle: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 95, no. B12, p. 19,747-19,762.

Humphreys, E.D., and Weldon, R.J., II, 1994, Deformation across the western United States: A local estimate of Pacific-North American transform deformation: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 99, p. 19,975-20,010.

Jones, L.M., 1988, Focal mechanisms and the state of stress on the San Andreas fault in southern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 93, no. B8, p. 8869-8891.

Lisowski, M., Savage, J.C., and Prescott, W.H., 1991, The velocity field along the San Andreas fault in central and southern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 96, p. 8369-8389.

National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council, 1988, Probabilities of large earthquakes occurring in California on the San Andreas fault: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 88-398, 62 p.

Nicholson, Craig, Seeber, Leonardo, Williams, Patrick, and Sykes, L.R., 1986, Seismicity and fault kinematics through the eastern Transverse Ranges, California: block rotation, strike-slip faulting and low-angle thrusts: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, no. B5, p. 4891-4908.

Sykes, L.R., and Nishenko, S.P., 1984, Probabilities of occurrence of large plate-rupturing earthquakes for the San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Imperial faults, California, 1983-2003: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 89, no. B7, p. 59O5-5927.

Sykes, L.R., and Seeber, Leonardo, 1985, Great earthquakes and great asperities, San Andreas fault, southern California: Geology, v. 13, no. 12, p. 835-838.

Weldon, Ray, and Humphreys, Eugene, 1986, A kinematic model of southern California: Tectonics, v. 5, no. 1, p. 33-48.

Wesnousky, S.G., 1986, Earthquakes, Quaternary faults, and seismic hazards in California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, p. 12587-12631.

Wesnousky, S.G., 1988, Seismological and structural evolution of strike-slip faults: Nature, v. 335, No. 6188, p. 340-344.

Wesson, R.L., and Wallace, R.E., 1985, Predicting the next great earthquake in California: Scientific American, v. 252, no. 2, p. 35-43.

Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995, Seismic hazards in southern California: Probable earthquakes, 1994-2024: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, v. 85, p. 379-439.


San Andreas Fault Studies


Allen, C.R., 1981, The modern San Andreas fault, in Ernst, W.G., ed., The geotectonic development of California [Rubey Volume I]: Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc., p. 511-534.

Dergham, Safaa A., and McGill, Sally F., 2000, Paleoseismic investigation of the San Andreas fault at Plunge Creek, near San Bernardino, California: Four to five centuries of strain accumulation since the most recent earthquake: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs (in press).

Harden, J.W., and Matti, J.C., 1989, Holocene and late Pleistocene slip rates on the San Andreas fault in Yucaipa, California, using displaced alluvial-fan deposits and soil chronology: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, p. 1107-1117.

McGill, S., Birnbaum, B.B., Burke, D., and Reeder, T. 1999, Late Quaternary activity on the north branch of the San Andreas fault, near San Bernardino, California, in Cranham, G.T., ed., Water for Southern California: San Diego San Diego Association of Geologists, Water Resources Development at the Close of the Century, pp. 31-36.

McGill, Sally F., Grant, Dawn, Dergham, Safaa, Suitt, Steven C., Meeker, Ann, and Wells, Stephen G., 1998, Prehistoric earthquakes on the San Andreas fault, San Bernardino, California: EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 79, no. 45, p. F611.

Nicholson, Craig, Seeber, Leonardo, Williams, Patrick, and Sykes, L.R., 1986, Seismic evidence for conjugate slip and block rotation within the San Andreas fault system, southern California: Tectonics, v. 5, p. 629-648.

Rasmussen, G.S., 1982, Geologic features and rate of movement along the south branch of the San Andreas fault, San Bernardino, California, in Rasmussen, G.S., ed., Geologic hazards along the San Andreas fault system, San Bernardino-Hemet-Elsinore, California, field trip 4 of Cooper, J.D., compiler, Neotectonics in southern California: Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section, 78th Annual Meeting, Anaheim, Calif., Volume and Guidebook, p. 109-114.

Sanders, C.O., 1993, Interaction of the San Jacinto and San Andreas fault zones, southern California: triggered earthquake migration and coupled recurrence intervals: Science, v. 260, p. 973-976.

Saucier, Francois, Humphreys, Eugene, and Weldon, Ray, III, 1992, Stress near geometrically complex strike-slip faults: application to the San Andreas fault at Cajon Pass, southern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 97, No. B4, p. 5081-5094.

Seitz, G., and Weldon, R., 1994, The paleoseismology of the southern San Andreas fault at Pitman Canyon, San Bernardino, California, in McGill, S.F., and Ross, T.M., eds., Geological investigations of an active margin: Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section Guidebook, Trip No. 8, p. 152-156.

Seitz, G., Weldon, R. II, and Biasi, G. P., 1997, The Pitman Canyon paleoseismic record: A reevaluation of southern San Andreas fault segmentation: Journal of. Geodynamics, v. 24, pp. 129-138.

Sieh, K., Grant, L.B., and Freeman, S.T., 1994, Late Quaternary slip rate of the north branch of the San Andreas fault at City Creek, California: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 26, no. 2, p. 91.

Weldon, R.J., II, and Springer, J.E., 1988, Active faulting near the Cajon Pass well, southern California; implications for the stress orientation near the San Andreas fault, in Zoback, M.D., Silver, L.T., Henyey, Thomas, and Thatcher, Wayne, eds., Scientific drilling near the San Andreas fault: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 15, no. 9 (supplement), p. 993-996.

Weldon, R. J., and Matti, J. C., 1986, Geologic evidence for segmentation of the southern San Andreas fault: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 67, p 905-906.


San Jacinto Fault Studies

Prentice, C.S., Weldon, R.J., and Sieh, K.E., 1986, Distribution of slip between the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults near San Bernardino, southern California: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 18, p. 172.

Sanders, C.O., 1993, Interaction of the San Jacinto and San Andreas fault zones, southern California: triggered earthquake migration and coupled recurrence intervals: Science, v. 260, p. 973-976.

Sanders, C.O., 1993, Interaction of the San Jacinto and San Andreas fault zones, southern California: triggered earthquake migration and coupled recurrence intervals: Science, v. 260, p. 973-976.

Sanders, C., and Magistrale, H., 1997, Segmentation of the northern San Jacinto fault zone, southern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 102, no. B12, p. 27,453-27,467.

Sieh, K., Cheatum, C., Dingus, L. Johnson, W., and McMurtry, G., 1973, Geological investigations of portions of the San Jacinto fault zone, San Bernardino, California, in Elders, W.A., 1973, Ed., Geological investigations of the San Jacinto fault zone, and aspects of the socio-economic impact of earthquakes in the Riverside-San Bernardino area, California: Riverside, University of California, Campus Museum Contributions, Number 3, p. 1-49.

Thatcher, W., Hileman, J.A., and Hanks, T.C., 1975, Seismic slip distribution along the San Jacinto fault zone, Southern California, and its implications: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 86, p. 11401146.

Wesnousky, S.G., Prentice, C.S., and Sieh, K.E., 1991, An offset Holocene stream channel and the rate of slip along the northern reach of the San Jacinto fault zone, San Bernardino Valley, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 103, p. 700-709.


Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Investigations

Kennedy, S.A., and Matti, J.C., 1999, Data-base model specifications for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), version 2.0a: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99-145, 45 p.

Matti, J.C., Miller, F.K., Powell, R.E., Kennedy, S.A., Bunyapanasarn, T.P., Koukladas, Catherine, Hauser, R.M., and Cossette, P.M., 1997, Geologic-point attributes for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-859, 51 p.

Matti, J.C., Miller, F.K., Powell, R.E., Kennedy, S.A., and Cossette, P.M., 1997, Geologic-polygon attributes for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-860, 248 p.

Matti, J.C., Powell, R.E., Miller, F.K., Kennedy, S.A., Ruppert, K.R., Morton, G.L., and Cossette, P.M., 1997, Geologic-line attributes for digital geologic-map data bases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-861, 96 p.


Geologic Maps and Geologic-Map Data Bases


Paper Geologic Maps

Bortugno, E.J., and Spittler, T.E., 1986, Geologic map of the San Bernardino quadrangle: California Division of Mines and Geology, Map No.3A (Geology) of the Regional Geologic Map Series, scale 1:250,000.

Dibblee, T. W., Jr., 1974, Geologic Map of the Lake Arrowhead Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 74-56, scale 1:62,500.

Dibblee, T. W., Jr., 1974, Geologic map of the Redlands 15-minute quadrangle, California: U. S. Geologic Survey Open-File Report 74-1022, scale 1:62,500.

Matti, J.C., Morton, D.M., Cox, B.F., Carson, S.E., and Yetter, T.J., 1992, Geologic map of the Yucaipa 7.5' quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-446, 14 p., scale 1:24,000.

Matti, J.C., Brown, H.J., Miller, F.K., Wrucke, C.T., Calzia, J.P., and Conway, C.M., 1993, Preliminary geologic map of the north-central San Bernardino Mountains, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-544, 10 p., scale 1:100,000.

Miller, F.K., 1979, Geologic map of the San Bernardino North 7.5' quadrangle: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 79-770, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M., 1978, Geologic map of the San Bernardino South 7.5' quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-20, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M., 1978, Geologic map of the Redlands 7.5' quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-21, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M., 1978, Geologic map of the Fontana 7.5' quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 78-23, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M., and Matti, J.C., 1991, Geologic map of the Devore 7.5' Quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-695, scale 1:24,000.


Digital Geologic-Map Data Bases


Geologic Map of the San Bernardino 30 x 60 Degree Quadrangle

Miller, F.K., Matti, J.C., Brown, H.J., and Powell, R.E., 1998, Digital geologic map of the Fawnskin 7.5' quadrangle, California, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-579, scale 1:24,000.

Miller, F.K., Matti, J.C., and Brown, H.J., 2000, Digital geologic map of the Butler Peak 7.5' quadrangle, California, version 1.0: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-145, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M. and Hauser, R.M.. 2001, A Debris Avalanche at Forest Falls, San Bernardino County, California, July 11,1999. http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of01-146.

Morton, D.M., and Matti, J.C., 1991, Geologic map of the Cucamonga Peak quadrangle, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-694, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M., and Matti, J.C., 1991, Geologic map of the Devore quadrangle, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-695, scale 1:24,000.

Morton, D.M., Woodburne, M.O., Foster, J., 1991, Geologic map of the Telegraph Peak quadrangle, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-693, scale 1:24,000.


Geologic-Setting and Geologic-History Investigations


Basin-Evolution and Clast-Provenance Studies

Albright, L.B., 1999, Magnetostratigraphy and biochronology of the San Timoteo Badlands, southern California, with implications for local Pliocene-Pleistocene tectonic and depositional patterns: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 111, p. 1265-1293.

Sadler, P.M., and Reeder, W.A., 1983, Upper Cenozoic quartzite-bearing gravels of the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California: recycling and mixing as a result of transpressional uplift, in Anderson, D.W., and Rymer, M.J., eds., Tectonics and sedimentation along faults of the San Andreas system: Pacific Section, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, p. 45-57.


Crystalline Basement-Rock Studies

Ehlig, P.L., 1988, Characteristics of basement rocks exposed near the Cajon Pass scientific drill hole, in Zoback, M.D., Silver, L.T., Henyey, Thomas, and Thatcher, Wayne, eds., Scientific drilling near the San Andreas fault: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 15, no. 9 (supplement), p. 949-952.

Frizzell, V.A., Jr., Mattinson, J.M., and Matti, J.C., 1986, Distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite: evidence for only 160 km offset along the San Andreas fault, southern California: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, no. B14, p. 14,080-14,088.

Jacobson, C.E., and Dawson, M.R.,1995, Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Orocopia Schist and related rocks, southern California: evidence for late movement on the Orocopia fault: Tectonics, v. 14, no. 4, p. 933-944.

Jacobson, C.E., Oyarzabal, F.R., and Haxel, G.B., 1996, Subduction and exhumation of the Pelona-Orocopia-Rand schists, southern California: Geology, v. 24, no. 6, p. 547-550.


Fault-History Studies

Matti, J.C., and Morton, D.M., 1993, Paleogeographic evolution of the San Andreas fault in southern California: a reconstruction based on a new cross-fault correlation, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., II, and Matti, J.C., eds., The San Andreas fault system: displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 107-159.

Matti, J.C., Morton, D.M. and Cox, B.F., 1985, Distribution and geologic relations of fault systems in the vicinity of the central Transverse Ranges, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 85-365, 27 p., scale 1:250,000.

Matti, J.C., Morton, D.M. and Cox, B.F., 1992, The San Andreas fault system in the vicinity of the central Transverse Ranges province, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-354, 40 p., scale 1:250,000.

Matti, J.C., Powell, R.E., and Miller, F.K., 1998, The Blackhawk Mountain uplift, southern California: a Quaternary folded-thrust uplift in the left-stepping Helendale fault zone?: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, no. 5, p. 53.

Matti, J.C., Powell, R.E., and Miller, F.K., 1998, The San Bernardino Mountains of southern California: a Quaternary fold-, thrust-, and tear-fault belt: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, no. 5, p. 53.

Morton, D.M., and Matti, J.C., 1993, Extension and contraction within an evolving divergent strike-slip fault complex: the San Andreas and San Jacinto fault zones at their convergence in southern California, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., and Matti, J.C., eds., The San Andreas fault system: displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 217-230.

Nicholson, Craig, Seeber, Leonardo, Williams, Patrick, and Sykes, L.R., 1986, Seismicity and fault kinematics through the eastern Transverse Ranges, California: block rotation, strike-slip faulting and low-angle thrusts: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, no. B5, p. 4891-4908.

Nicholson, Craig, Seeber, Leonardo, Williams, Patrick, and Sykes, L.R., 1986, Seismic evidence for conjugate slip and block rotation within the San Andreas fault system, southern California: Tectonics, v. 5, p. 629-648.

Powell, R.E., 1993, Balanced palinspastic reconstruction of pre-Late Cenozoic paleogeology, southern California: geologic and kinematic constraints on evolution of the San Andreas fault system, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., and Matti, J.C., eds., The San Andreas fault system: displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 1-106.

Sadler, P.M., Demirer, Ali, West, David, and Hillenbrand, J.M., 1993, The Mill Creek Basin, the Potato Sandstone, and fault strands in the San Andreas fault zone south of the San Bernardino Mountains, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., and Matti, J.C., eds., The San Andreas fault system: displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 289-306.

Weldon, R.J., II, Meisling, K.E., and Alexander, J., 1993, A speculative history of the San Andreas Fault in the central Transverse Ranges, California, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., and Matti, J.C., eds., The San Andreas fault system: displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 161-198.


Paleomagnetism Studies

Albright, L.B., 1999, Magnetostratigraphy and biochronology of the San Timoteo Badlands, southern California, with implications for local Pliocene-Pleistocene tectonic and depositional patterns: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 111, p. 1265-1293.

Hehn, V.N., MacFadden, B.J., Albright, L.B., and Woodburne, M.O., 1996, Magnetic polarity stratigraphy and possible differential tectonic rotation of the Miocene-Pliocene mammal-bearing San Timoteo Badlands, southern California: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 141, p. 35-49.


Tectonics, Geologic-Setting, and Structural Studies

Kenney, M.D., and Weldon, R.J., 1999, Timing and magnitude of mid to late Quaternary uplift of the western San Bernardino and northeastern San Gabriel Mountains, southern California, in Reynolds, R.E., and Reynolds, Jennifer, Tracks along the Mojave: A field guide from Cajon Pass to the Calico Mountains and Coyote Lake: San Bernardino County Museum Association Quarterly, v. 46, no. 3, p. 33-46.

Magistrale, H., and Zhou, H-W., 1996, Lithologic control of the depth of earthquakes in southern California: Science, v. 273, p. 639-642.

Meisling, K.E., and Weldon, R.J., 1989, Late Cenozoic tectonics of the northwestern San Bernardino Mountains, southern California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, p. 106-128.

Nicholson, Craig, Seeber, Leonardo, Williams, Patrick, and Sykes, L.R., 1986, Seismicity and fault kinematics through the eastern Transverse Ranges, California: block rotation, strike-slip faulting and low-angle thrusts: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 91, no. B5, p. 4891-4908.

Nicholson, Craig, Seeber, Leonardo, Williams, Patrick, and Sykes, L.R., 1986, Seismic evidence for conjugate slip and block rotation within the San Andreas fault system, southern California: Tectonics, v. 5, p. 629-648.

Sadler, P.M., 1993, The Santa Ana Basin of the central San Bernardino Mountains: evidence of the timing of uplift and strike slip relative to the San Gabriel Mountains, in Powell, R.E., Weldon, R.J., and Matti, J.C., eds., The San Andreas fault system: displacement, palinspastic reconstruction, and geologic evolution: Geological Society of America Memoir 178, p. 307-321.

Sadler, P.M., and Demirer, Ali, 1986, Geology of upper Mill Creek and Santa Ana Canyon, southern San Bernardino Mountains, California, field trip 12 of Ehlig, P.L., compiler, Neotectonics and faulting in southern California: Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section, 82nd Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, California, 1986, Guidebook and Volume, p. 129-140.

Sadler, P.M., and Reeder, W.A., 1983, Upper Cenozoic quartzite-bearing gravels of the San Bernardino Mountains, southern California: recycling and mixing as a result of transpressional uplift, in Anderson, D.W., and Rymer, M.J., eds., Tectonics and sedimentation along faults of the San Andreas system: Pacific Section, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, p. 45-57.

Weldon, R.J., 1984, Quaternary deformation due to the junction of the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, southern California: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 16, no. 6, p., 689.

Weldon, R.J., 1984, Implications of the age and distribution of the late Cenozoic stratigraphy in Cajon Pass, southern California, in Hester, R.L., and Hallinger, D.E., eds., San Andreas fault--Cajon Pass to Wrightwood: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Pacific Section, Volume and guidebook no. 55, p. 9-16.

Weldon, R.J., 1985, Implications of the age and distribution of the late Cenozoic stratigraphy in Cajon Pass, southern California, in Reynolds, R.E., compiler, Geological investigations along Interstate 15, Cajon Pass to Manix Lake, California: Redlands, California, San Bernardino County Museum Publication, p. 59-68.


Geophysical Maps and Investigations

Anderson, M.L., Jachens, R., and Woolfenden, L., 1999, Structural model of the San Bernardino strike-slip basin, southern California, from regional gravity data: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 80, no. 46, p. F1002.

Anderson, M.L., Roberts, C.W., and Jachens, R.C., 2000, Principal facts for gravity stations in the vicinity of San Bernardino, southern California, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 00-193, 23 p.

Hadley, D.M., and Smith, S.W., 1973, Two geophysical investigations in the San Bernardino Valley area, California, in Elders, W.A., ed., Geological investigations of the San Jacinto fault zone, and aspects of the socio-economic impact of earthquakes in the Riverside-San Bernardino area, California: Riverside, University of California, Campus Museum Contributions, no. 3, p. 51-65.

Hartzell, S., Jachens, R., Brocher, T., and Frankel, A., 1988, Imaging and ground motion in urban sedimentary basins: the Santa Clara and San Bernardino Valleys: U.S. Geological Survey Open File-Report 98-244, 28 p.

Jachens, R.C., and Langenheim, V.E.,1996, Aeromagnetic map of the San Bernardino 1:100,000-scale quadrangle, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-284.

Willingham, R.C., 1971, Basement fault geometries in the San Bernardino Valley and western San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 3, no. 2, p. 217.

Willingham, R.C., 1981, Gravity anomaly patterns and fault interpretations in the San Bernardino Valley and western San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California, in Brown, A.R., and Ruff, R.W., eds., Geology of the San Jacinto Mountains: Santa Ana, California, South Coast Geological Society, Annual Field trip guidebook, no. 9, p. 164-174.


Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Investigations


Albright, L.B., 1997, Geochronology and vertebrate paleontology of the San Timoteo Badlands, southern California: Riverside, University of California, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 328 p.

Frick, C., 1921, Extinct vertebrate faunas of the Badlands of Bautista Creek and San Timoteo Canon, southern California: University of California Publications in Geology, v. 12, no. 5, p. 277-424.

Powell, R.E., and Matti, J.C., 1998, Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations in the Mojave Desert and San Bernardino Mts piedmont, Lucerne Valley, CA: PART I: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, no. 5, p. 59

Powell, R.E., and Matti, J.C., 1998, Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations in the Mojave Desert and San Bernardino Mts piedmont, Lucerne Valley, CA: PART II: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 30, no. 5, p. 59.


Surficial and Quaternary Investigations


Harden, J.W., and Matti, J.C., 1989, Holocene and late Pleistocene slip rates on the San Andreas fault in Yucaipa, California, using displaced alluvial-fan deposits and soil chronology: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, p. 1107-1117.

Harrison, J.B.J.; McFadden, L.D.; Weldon III, R.J., 1990, Spatial soil variability in the Cajon Pass chronosequence: implications for the use of soils as a geochronological tool: Geomorphology, v. 3, p. 399-416.

Harrison, J.B.J., McFadden, L.D., and Weldon, R.J., 1993, Influence of colluvial deposition on rates of soil development in the Transverse Ranges, California: Israel Earth Science, v. 41, p. 139-154.

Harrison, J.B.J., McFadden, L.D., Weldon, R.J., and Kendrick, K.J., 1994, Spatial variability of soils on terrace treads in Cajon Pass, in McGill, S.F., and Ross, T.M., eds., Geological investigations of an active margin: Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section Guidebook, Trip No. 8, p. 156-160.

Kendrick, K.J., 1996, Descriptions and laboratory analysis for soils in the northern San Timoteo Badlands, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-93, 6 p.

Kendrick, K.J., McFadden, L.D., and Morton, D.M., 1994, Soils and slip rates along the northern San Jacinto fault, in McGill, S.F., and Ross, T.M., eds., Geological investigations of an active margin: Geological Society of America Cordilleran Section Guidebook, Trip No. 8, p. 146-151.

McFadden, L.D., and Weldon, R.J., 1987, Rates and processes of soil development on Quaternary terraces in Cajon Pass, California: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 98, p. 280-293.

Weldon, R.J., 1983, Climatic control for the formation of terraces in Cajon Creek, southern California: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 15, no. 5, p. 429.


Thesis and Dissertation Investigations

Albright, L.B., 1997, Geochronology and vertebrate paleontology of the San Timoteo Badlands, southern California: Riverside, University of California, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 328 p.

Green, S.M., 1983, Seismotectonic study of the San Andreas, Mission Creek, and Banning fault system: Los Angeles, University of California, unpublished M.S. thesis, 52 p.

Hillenbrand, J. M., 1990, The Potato Sandstone between the Santa Ana River and Badger Canyon, San Bernardino County, southern California: implications for displacement in the San Andreas fault zone: Riverside, California, University of California, unpublished M.S thesis, 163 p.

Owens, G.V., 1959, Sedimentary rocks of lower Mill Creek, San Bernardino Mountains, California: Pomona, Pomona College, M.S. thesis,111 p.

Weldon, R.J., 1986, The late Cenozoic geology of Cajon Pass; implications for tectonics and sedimentation along the San Andreas fault: Pasadena, California Institute of Technology, unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 382 p.

West, D.L. 1987, Geology of the Wilson Creek-Mill Creek fault zone-the north flank of the former Mill Creek basin, San Bernardino County, California: Riverside, University of California, unpublished M.S. thesis, 94 p.

Willingham, R.C., 1968, A gravity survey of the San Bernardino Valley, southern California: Riverside, University of California, M.S. thesis, 96 p.

See additional selected resources about the Transverse Ranges region

San Gabriel Mountains

San Gorgorio Pass Region

Santa Barbara Coast Plain

Return to the Geology of the Transverse Ranges


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